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乳腺癌的十大误区 你中招几条?
2018-07-19 01:59 南京晨报
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  爱喝豆浆、隆胸会增加乳腺癌的风险;乳腺癌是中老年人的专利……对于这些看似很有道理的说法,不少人信以为真。今天是三八妇女节,江苏省肿瘤医院乳腺病区主任、普外科主任医师俞乔提醒,乳腺癌的十大误区,一定要擦亮眼睛辨别。

  误区一:隆胸会增加乳腺癌患病风险

  做过硅胶假体隆胸术的女性罹患乳腺癌的风险显然不会高于一般女性,除非是注射英捷尔法勒或者奥美定隆乳。这两种注射材料因为具有神经毒性、致癌性、生殖毒性,在2006年已被停止使用。

  但是使用含有激素类的产品(比如精油、软膏等)进行盲目的丰胸,可能会增加乳腺癌的发病率。

  误区二:X射线检查会增加乳腺癌风险

  乳房X线检查的辐射剂量极小,超过40岁的女性在体检时每年做1-2次钼靶都是安全的。相反,定期接受钼靶检查有利于乳腺癌的早期发现。

  误区三:在月经前后出现乳房疼痛是不是得了乳腺癌

  乳腺癌最常表现为乳房出现无痛性肿块、乳头溢血,或者在体检时钼靶检查发现钙化灶。月经前后出现周期性的、有规律的乳房胀痛、乳房结节,通常是乳腺增生的表现,在月经前症状明显,月经后可以缓解。做乳腺超声和钼靶检查的最佳时间应该是在月经结束后的一周左右。

  误区四:乳房自检没有摸到肿块,乳腺癌就与我无关

  乳房自检确实是最简便的发现乳腺癌的方式,但是并不能夸大它的功效。一部分乳腺癌表现为乳头溢血、钼靶检查出现钙化灶,而并不伴有乳房肿块。另外,乳房自检只能感知较大的肿块,而钼靶、超声、MRI可以检查到直径在0.5cm左右的结节,并能够判断它的性质,准确度更高、更敏感。所以除了乳房自检外,定期的影像学检查也必不可少。

  误区五:乳腺癌是中老年女性的“专利”

  根据我国的两癌筛查和抽样调查发现,女性乳腺癌的发病呈现年轻化趋势,我国女性罹患乳腺癌的平均年龄低于欧美等发达国家。在我们接诊的乳腺癌患者中,年龄最小的仅17岁。20-30岁的乳腺癌患者也逐渐增多。同时,男性也有可能会患乳腺癌,发病率大约是女性的1/100。

  误区六:喝豆浆会增加乳腺癌患病风险

  豆浆中富含植物雌激素,对人体雌激素水平具有双向调节作用。当人体雌激素不足时,它可以起到补充作用,人体内雌激素过高时,它又可以降低雌激素水平。因此植物雌激素又被称为女性雌激素水平的调节剂。适量的饮用豆浆和食用豆制品不会增加乳腺癌风险。

  误区七:乳腺癌是遗传性疾病,我的亲属中没有人得乳腺癌,所以我也不会

  乳腺癌的发生除了受到基因的影响外,与生活习惯、激素水平都有相关性。母亲或者家族中其他女性亲属患有乳腺癌,会增加本人罹患乳腺癌的风险,并不一定会发生乳腺癌。但是,尽管没有乳腺癌家族史,不良的生活习惯(比如过量饮酒,长期服用激素类药物,肥胖)也会使得乳腺癌的患病风险增高。未曾生育和哺乳的女性,乳腺癌患病风险也相对较高。

  误区八:乳腺增生可以通过去美容院推拿疏通乳腺,预防乳腺癌

  目前,乳腺按摩治疗乳腺疾患还没有理论依据;按摩所用的精油成分不明,极有可能含有雌激素类药物,刺激腺体增生;并且美容院就业人员资质良莠不齐。另外,如果乳腺本身存在恶性病灶,按摩不仅不能起到治疗和预防作用,反而会刺激肿瘤细胞,造成疾病的进展。所以感觉乳腺不适应该尽早到正规专科门诊就诊,及时排除恶性肿瘤可能。良性肿块根据情况采取相应的处理。美容院按摩来防治乳腺疾病并不靠谱。

  误区九:乳腺增生和纤维腺瘤是良性疾病,不会发展成为乳腺癌

  许多女性在月经前后出现周期性的乳房胀痛、乳房结节,或者患有乳腺纤维腺瘤一直未治疗,这些良性疾病仍然有发生恶变的可能,概率大约为1%。年轻女性在怀孕后受到体内激素急剧增高的影响,纤维腺瘤有可能会发生突然的增大恶变;随着年龄的不断增加,患有乳腺癌的风险也会随之增高。所以建议年轻女性在怀孕前进行乳腺的全面检查,排除隐患;患有乳腺增生、乳腺结节的女性定期复查。

  误区十:乳房越大越容易得乳腺癌,我的乳房小、月经初潮早、发育好,不会得乳腺癌

  乳腺癌的患病率与乳房的大小没有直接关系,而是与腺体的密度有关。小乳房的女性如果乳腺腺体致密,患病率也会相对较高。月经初潮早、绝经年龄晚更是乳腺癌的“钟情”对象。

  通讯员 胥林花 南京晨报记者 华琳月